Finding bugs in microcontroller (MCU) firmware is challenging, even for
device manufacturers who own the source code. The MCU runs different
instruction sets than x86 and exposes a very different development environment.
This invalidates many existing sophisticated software testing tools on x86. To
maintain a unified developing and testing environment, a straightforward way is
to re-compile the source code into the native executable for a commodity
machine (called rehosting). However, ad-hoc re-hosting is a daunting and
tedious task and subject to many issues (library-dependence, kernel-dependence
and hardware-dependence). In this work, we systematically explore the
portability problem of MCU software and propose pararehosting to ease the
porting process. Specifically, we abstract and implement a portable MCU (PMCU)
using the POSIX interface. It models common functions of the MCU cores. For
peripheral specific logic, we propose HAL-based peripheral function
replacement, in which high-level hardware functions are replaced with an
equivalent backend driver on the host. These backend drivers are invoked by
well-designed para-APIs and can be reused across many MCU OSs. We categorize
common HAL functions into four types and implement templates for quick backend
development. Using the proposed approach, we have successfully rehosted nine
MCU OSs including the widely deployed Amazon FreeRTOS, ARM Mbed OS, Zephyr and
LiteOS. To demonstrate the superiority of our approach in terms of security
testing, we used off-the-shelf dynamic analysis tools (AFL and ASAN) against
the rehosted programs and discovered 28 previously-unknown bugs, among which 5
were confirmed by CVE and the other 19 were confirmed by vendors at the time of

By admin