SUNBURST Additional Technical Details

FireEye has discovered additional details about the SUNBURST backdoor
since our initial publication on Dec. 13, 2020. Before diving into the
technical depth of this malware, we recommend readers familiarize
themselves with our blog post about the SolarWinds
supply chain compromise
, which revealed a global intrusion
campaign by a sophisticated threat actor we are currently tracking as UNC2452.

SUNBURST is a trojanized version of a digitally signed SolarWinds
Orion plugin called SolarWinds.Orion.Core.BusinessLayer.dll. The
plugin contains a backdoor that communicates via HTTP to third party
servers. After an initial dormant period of up to two weeks, SUNBURST
may retrieve and execute commands that instruct the backdoor to
transfer files, execute files, profile the system, reboot the system,
and disable system services. The malware’s network traffic attempts to
blend in with legitimate SolarWinds activity by imitating the Orion
Improvement Program (OIP) protocol and persistent state data is stored
within legitimate plugin configuration files. The backdoor uses
multiple obfuscated blocklists to identify processes, services, and
drivers associated with forensic and anti-virus tools.

In this post, the following topics are covered in greater detail:

  • Anti-Analysis Environment Checks and Blocklists
  • Domain Generation Algorithm and Variations
  • Command and
    Control (C2) behaviors for DNS A and CNAME records
  • Malware
    modes of operation

Anti-Analysis Environment Checks

Before reaching out to its C2 server, SUNBURST performs numerous
checks to ensure no analysis tools are present. It checks process
names, file write timestamps, and Active Directory (AD) domains before
proceeding. We believe that these checks helped SUNBURST evade
detection by anti-virus software and forensic investigators for seven
months after its introduction to the SolarWinds Orion supply chain.

First, the backdoor verifies that the lowercase name of the current
process is solarwinds.businesslayerhost.
UNC2452 avoided including this string directly in the source code by
computing a hash of the string and comparing the result to the 64-bit
number 17291806236368054941. The hash value
is calculated as a standard FNV-1A 64-bit hash with an additional XOR
by the 64-bit number 6605813339339102567.
The additional XOR operation forces malware analysts to develop custom
tools to brute force the hash preimage.

Next, the backdoor only executes if the filesystem last write time
of the .NET assembly SolarWinds.Orion.Core.BusinessLayer.dll is at
least 12 to 14 days prior to the current time. The exact threshold is
selected randomly from this interval. In other words, SUNBURST lays
low for almost two weeks before raising its head. If the timestamp
check fails, the backdoor will execute again at a random later time
when it is invoked by a legitimate recurring background task. Once the
threshold is met, the sample creates the named pipe 583da945-62af-10e8-4902-a8f205c72b2e to ensure
only one instance of the backdoor is running. If the named pipe
already exists, the malware exits.

SUNBURST stores its configuration in the legitimate SolarWinds.Orion.Core.BusinessLayer.dll.config
file. It repurposes two existing settings in the appSettings section:  ReportWatcherRetry and ReportWatcherPostpone. During initialization, the
backdoor determines if the ReportWatcherRetry setting is the value 3. This value indicates the malware has been
deactivated and will no longer perform any network activity. As we
describe later, UNC2452 can command the backdoor to disable itself.
This feature may be utilized when the operator determines the victim
is not of interest or that they’ve completed their mission. When
investigating a system compromised by SUNBURST, review this setting to
determine if the backdoor has been disabled. Note, the presence of
this value does not offer proof the actor did not further compromise
the environment before disabling SUNBURST.

The backdoor also determines if the system is joined to an Active
Directory (AD) domain and, if so, retrieves the domain name. Execution
ceases if the system is not joined to an AD domain. SUNBURST checks
the AD domain name against a blocklist and halts execution if it
contains one of the following values:















We suspect these hard-coded AD domains may be SolarWinds internal
domains that UNC2452 wanted to avoid.

Finally, SUNBURST verifies the system has internet connectivity by
ensuring it can resolve the DNS name Otherwise, execution stops and
retries at a random later time.

Anti-Analysis Blocklists

SUNBURST’s behavior is affected by the presence of malware analysis
and security software. To disguise the strings used to detect these
security tools, UNC2452 calculated and embedded a hash value for each
string. While it is trivial for the backdoor to check for the
existence of a hashed process name, it is computationally expensive to
determine what string a hash value corresponds to (the “preimage”).
However, thanks to some hard work by members of the information
security community, the hashes have been successfully brute-forced.
The list of hashes and their corresponding strings can be viewed at
this FireEye
GitHub page

SUNBURST uses the aforementioned FNV-1A plus XOR algorithm to
compute the hash of each process name, service name, and driver
filename on the system.

If a blocklisted process or driver name is found, SUNBURST pauses
and tries again later. The backdoor continues past this check only
when there are no processes nor drivers from the blocklist present.

If a blocklisted service is found, SUNBURST attempts to disable the
blocklisted service by manipulating the service configuration in the
Windows Registry. It sets the registry value HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetservices<service_name>Start
to the value 4, which corresponds to SERVICE_DISABLED. As a result, the blocklisted
service is disabled on the next power cycle. This means the
presence of a blocklisted service on a compromised host does not make
a system immune to SUNBURST.

After the registry modification is made, SUNBURST updates the ReportWatcherPostpone configuration value to
reflect the service it disabled. Then, the backdoor pauses and retries
the process and service blocklist checks at a later time.

Subsequent service blocklist checks skip services already present in
the ReportWatcherPostpone configuration key.
SUNBURST will not treat the services it has disabled as members of the
blocklist anymore. Therefore, during an incident response, forensic
teams should consider recovering and decoding this configuration key
to parse out which services SUNBURST attempted to disable.

Domain Generation Algorithm

In this section we describe how SUNBURST uses an intermediary
command and control (C2) coordinator to retrieve its final C2 server.
The C2 coordinator instructs the backdoor to continue or halt
beaconing. It also redirects SUNBURST to its final C2 server via DNS
CNAME records. We believe this enables UNC2452 to compartmentalize
their operations, limiting the network infrastructure shared among victims.

The C2 coordinator is implemented as the authoritative DNS server
for the avsvmcloud[.]com domain. To
communicate with the C2 coordinator, SUNBURST uses a Domain Generation
Algorithm (DGA) to construct subdomains of avsvmcloud[.]com and resolves the fully qualified
domain names (FQDN) using the system DNS client. The backdoor
interprets the DNS responses in an unusual way to receive orders from
the C2 coordinator.

The DGA generates subdomains with the following DNS suffixes to
create the FQDN:


A method named Update is responsible for
initializing cryptographic helpers for the generation of these
random-looking C2 subdomains. Subdomains are generated by
concatenating an encoded user ID with an encoding of the system’s
domain name. The C2 coordinator can recover the victim domain name
from the encoded data and likely uses this to route SUNBURST to its
final C2 server.

A user ID is generated based on three values:

  • MAC address of the first available, non-loopback network
  • Domain name
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftCryptographyMachineGuid

SUNBURST takes the MD5 hash of these combined values and encodes it
using a custom XOR scheme. We believe this value is used by UNC2452 to
track unique victims.

SUNBURST uses four different forms of subdomains to signify the
operating mode of the backdoor. Each form contains slightly different
information. However, in two of the forms, investigators can recover
the domain names of victim organizations. We recommend reviewing DNS
logs to confirm the presence of a victim’s domain in SUNBURST C2
coordinator traffic.

When SUNBURST is in its initial mode, it embeds the domain of the
victim organization in its DGA-generated domain prefix. Once the
malware transitions to an “active” mode, the malware uses the other
two forms of subdomains. These do not include the AD domain, but
instead include encodings of either the list of running and stopped
services or a timestamp.

The open-source community has done a fantastic job reverse
engineering many of the subdomain forms. While we are not aware of any
public decoder scripts that reverse all four possible encodings, most
decoders focus on recovering the most useful information: the user ID
and domain name embedded in the subdomains. We recommend that incident
responders for victim organizations with access to DNS logs use these
tools to confirm their AD domains are not embedded within SUNBURST
generated DNS subdomains. Note that this does not indicate follow-on activity.

The following sources may be referenced for decoding such domains:

SUNBURST Additional Technical Details

Figure 1: Diagram of actor operations and
usage of SUNBURST

Command and Control

SUNBURST uses a two-part C2 protocol that involves both DNS and
HTTP. In “passive” mode, the backdoor communicates with its C2
coordinator via DNS and receives high-level updates to its state. For
example, the C2 coordinator may tell the backdoor to go to sleep or
spring into action. When the backdoor is in “active” mode, it
communicates via HTTP to its final C2 server and receives detailed
commands such as “spawn a process” or “transfer a file”.

DNS C2 and the C2 Coordinator Protocol

When communicating with the C2 coordinator, the backdoor
continuously generates domains via its DGA. The backdoor delays
execution for random intervals between generating domains. In some
cases, this delay is up to 9 hours.

If the C2 coordinator responds with a DNS A record, SUNBURST checks
the resolved address against a hard-coded list of IP address blocks.
If the address falls within a block, the backdoor transitions into an
associated mode. The backdoor starts in the “passive” mode where it
does nothing but check blocklists, sleep, and beacon via DNS until a
transition is seen. Other modes are “active”, in which the malware
communicates via HTTP, and “disabled”, in which the malware is
permanently disabled. These modes and transitions are defined in the
Modes of Operation section.

The C2 coordinator may also respond with a DNS CNAME response. In
this case, the malware uses the pointed-to domain from the CNAME
response for HTTPS C2 communications. SUNBURST starts a thread to
handle command execution and further C2 HTTP(S) callouts. As an
investigator, if you see CNAME resolutions for subdomains of
avsvmcloud[.]com, it‘s possible that UNC2452 initiated follow-on C2
within the environment.

Note, the malware must receive a DNS A record response pointing to
one of the following subnets immediately prior to receiving a DNS
CNAME response. Otherwise, the CNAME resolution will be ignored and
treated as an error. In addition, for these subnets, the
least-significant bytes from the A record IP address are parsed to
obtain configuration data such as the proxy method to use, the URI
scheme to use, and a delay value used in the HTTP thread.

Subsequent DNS A record responses in the following subnet ranges
cause the DGA beaconing to continue.


Otherwise, subsequent DNS A record responses in the following subnet
ranges cause SUNBURST to terminate and update the configuration key
ReportWatcherRetry to a value that
prevents further execution. This is the killswitch.

fc00:: – fe00::

fec0:: – ffc0::

ff00:: – ff00::


While in “active” mode, the DGA subdomain encoding does not include
victim machine domain name information. Instead, the DGA subdomains
encode a timestamp or the list of stopped/running services. To
transition back to “passive” mode, the malware operator may set the
DNS server to resolve A records within the following IP ranges:

If the malware is transitioned from the “active” mode back to
“passive”, the C2 coordinator must repeat the activation process if
the operator wants to re-activate the sample.


After receiving a CNAME DNS response with a new host to communicate
with, SUNBURST starts a new thread to execute the method HttpHelper.Initialize. This method is responsible
for the C2 communications and dispatching. The HTTP thread begins by
delaying for a configurable amount of time that is controlled by the
SetTime command. The HTTP thread delays
for a minimum of one minute between callouts. The malware uses HTTP
GET or POST requests. The sample disables certificate verification so
it is possible to decrypt HTTPS traffic if SSL man-in-the-middle is performed.

The malware constructs HTTP GET or POST request URIs from random
selections of substrings. The scheme used depends on the A record
received just prior to the CNAME DNS response. When sending a GET
request, the malware adds an “If-None-Match” HTTP header
that includes the encoded user ID. This likely allows the C2 server to
determine which SUNBURST installation generated the request, further
enabling multiplexing of C2 streams on a single server.

In observed traffic, the C2 server employs steganography to hide
data within HTTP response bodies and attempts to appear as benign XML
related to .NET assemblies. Command data is spread across many GUID
and hexadecimal strings. Commands are extracted from HTTP response
bodies by searching for hexadecimal strings using the following
regular expression: “{[0-9a-f-]{36}}”|”[0-9a-f]{32}”|”[0-9a-f]{16}”.
Matched substrings in the response are filtered for non-hex
characters, joined together, and hex-decoded. Depending on the mode of
operation, the malware may skip the steganography and send the encoded
response in an HTTP response body.

Figure 2: C2 response embeds commands in

In the received C2 response, the first DWORD value indicates the
actual size of the message. This value is followed immediately by the
message with optional junk bytes added. The extracted message is
single-byte XOR decoded using the first byte of the message. The
result is then DEFLATE decompressed. The first character of the
decompressed data is an ASCII integer that maps to a command ID, with
optional additional command arguments delimited by space characters.
The supported commands are shown in the following table.







Terminate the current thread. 


Sets the delay time between main event loop
executions Delay is in seconds, and varies random between [.9
* <delay>, 1.1 * <delay>] 

If the delay is
< 300 it is doubled on the next execution through the loop,
this means it should settle onto an interval of around [5, 10]

o There is a second, unrelated delay routine
that delays for a random interval between [16hrs, 83hrs] 



Profile the local system including hostname,
username, OS version, MAC addresses, IP address, DHCP
configuration, and domain information. 


Perform an HTTP request to the specified URL,
parse the results and send the response to the C2 server. 


Starts a new process with the given file path
and arguments 


Returns a process listing. If no arguments are
provided, returns just the PID and process name. 
If an argument is provided, it also returns the parent PID and
username and domain for the process owner. 


Terminate the given process, by PID. 


Given a path, and a match pattern recursively
list files and directories.


Given a file path and a Base64-encoded string
write the contents of the Base64 string to the given file
path. Write using append mode. Delay for [1s, 2s] after
writing is done. 



Tests whether the given file path exists. 



Deletes the specified file path. 



Compute the MD5 of a file at a given path and
return the result as a hex string. If an argument is provided,
it is the expected MD5 hash of the file and returns an error
if the calculated MD5 differs. 



Arbitrary registry read from one of the
supported hives.



Arbitrary registry write from one of the
supported hives. 



Arbitrary registry delete from one of the
supported hives.



Returns listing of subkeys and value names
beneath the given registry path.



Attempts to immediately trigger a system

SUNBURST sends messages back to the C2 server using a protocol that
consists of UTF-8 strings and an appended 4-byte error DWORD and
8-byte userID. These are bare DEFLATE compressed and single-byte XOR
encoded with the XOR key prepended to the message. Message payloads of
length 10,000 or less are turned into JSON documents that resemble the
Orion Improvement Program (OIP) messages used legitimately by
SolarWinds. Messages larger than 10,000 bytes are sent as-is in the
HTTP request body.

The fake OIP document contains the following fields:

  • userId – a unique identifier for the
    victim machine
  • sessionID – stores a new random GUID for
    each HTTP thread
  • steps – an array of objects that contain
    the following keys: Timestamp, Index, EventType,
    EventName, DurationMs, Succeeded,
    and Message.

The JSON key EventType is hard-coded to
the value Orion and the EventName is hard-coded to EventManager. The encoded message to send to the
C2 server is split up into random ranges, Base64-encoded, and stored
in the Message field of the objects in the
steps array. Not all objects in the steps array contribute to the malware response.
The integer in the Timestamp field must have
the 0x2 bit set to indicate the contents of
the Message field are used in the malware
response. steps objects whose 0x2 bit is clear in the Timestamp field contain random data and are
discarded when assembling the malware response. This may be an attempt
to hinder analysis in the absence of the malware sample.

Figure 3: HTTP callout masquerades as OIP protocol

Modes of Operation

As detailed in the DGA section, the malware has multiple modes of
operation configured by the IP block that A records resolve to as well
as depending on if CNAME records exist. These modes of operation are
stored in internal enumerations. These mappings and values are
described next.

Internal Modes

The following modes govern internal operations of the malware:

Mode Name





Disabled; the malware killswitch has been
activated and the sample may never run again without external
modification to the XML configuration on-disk.



Passive mode; DGA subdomains encode the
system’s domain name



Active mode; C2 beaconing will occur on next
CNAME resolve or is already actively occurring. DGA domains
encode either the userID or the list
of services

The mode values are written into the backdoor configuration key
ReportWatcherRetry. Investigators may
consider recovering the malware configuration and inspecting this
configuration value to determine the last running mode of the malware.

The following transitions govern how IP block ranges are translated
into running modes:

Transition Name



Transition to Truncate


Transition from Append to New


Transition to Truncate


Transition to Append, either start or continue
C2 beaconing


Not an IPv4 or IPv6 address, exit and retry
DGA later

The following diagram describes how the SUNBURST’s DGA DNS responses
act as mode transitions to control the malware before HTTP-based C2
beaconing has even begun:

Additionally, here is an annotated network log showing how a
sequence of DNS resolutions can transition the malware mode:

To end this discussion of modes and transitions, a small note about
the choices of these IP blocks. In cases such as the ImpLink IP blocks
that activate the killswitch, it’s likely that the ranges were
specifically chosen by the attacker to avoid being discovered by
security researchers. In other cases, such as the NetBios and
“special” NetBios IP blocks, the companies these blocks
resolve to is likely irrelevant or at least beyond what can be
definitively said without speculation.

Malware Flow Diagram

The following diagram provides a full picture of the malware’s
execution. Internally, SUNBURST uses a set of modes and transitions as
described earlier. The names of these modes and transitions have no
meaning. The malware authors purposely chose them as a form of
obfuscation. When diagraming the malware’s execution, these names were
reused for clarity.

Figure 4: Malware logic and decision states


Is a system running blocklisted processes, services, or drivers
safe from compromise?

Sometimes, but not always. SUNBURST unconditionally exits if
blocklisted processes or drivers are found and will not run until they
are no longer detected. On the other hand, services are disabled by
setting a registry value that controls startup initialization and are
not explicitly stopped. As a result, a blocklisted service may still
be running when the malware performs its service checks later. For
this reason, it is possible for a victim system to be infected while a
blocklisted service is running. Additionally, SUNBURST only attempts
to disable a service once and updates its configuration to mark the
service as disabled. Once the configuration is updated, the service is
not treated as a blocklisted entry during subsequent execution. 

Does observing one DGA encoding over another provide any
information during incident response?

Short answer: it provides a hint for where to look but isn’t a
be-all tell-all alone. Noticing the DGA encoding change in network
logs is a hint that the malware may have moved from New to Append or
Append to New. This puts the malware in a mode where if a CNAME record
is seen soon after, then HTTP C2 can begin. Incident response should
focus on trying to identify CNAME records being successfully resolved
instead of focusing on DGA encodings entirely. Identifying CNAME
records is easier than tracking the malware mode through logs and a
stronger signal.

What is the “killswitch”?

FireEye discovered that certain DNS responses cause the malware to
disable itself and stop further network activity. With the support and
help of GoDaddy’s Abuse Team and the Microsoft Threat Intelligence
Center, the domain used for resolving DGA domains was reconfigured to
point to a sinkhole server under Microsoft’s control. The IP of this
sinkhole server was specially chosen to fall into the range used by
the malware to transition from its current mode (New or Append) into
Truncate mode where it will be permanently inactive. In other words,
SUNBURST infections should now be inoculated due to the killswitch.

When C2 communication occurs, is a CNAME record required?

CNAME records are required for HTTP C2 beaconing to occur and are
provided by the C2 coordinator to specify the final C2 server. C2
activity must occur over a domain name provided via a CNAME record. It
cannot occur directly via a raw IP. To initialize C2 beaconing, the
backdoor first looks for an A record response from one of its special
NetBios subnets and subsequently expects to receive a CNAME record.

If a DGA domain is decoded to a company domain name, is that
company compromised?

When the backdoor is in “passive” mode it uses the DGA encoding
which embeds victim AD domain names. This means that any system where
the backdoor is present may have started trying to contact DNS servers
where an attacker could then activate the backdoor to begin active C2
communications. In most cases this did not occur and backdoors
for non-targets were disabled by the operator. Therefore, it cannot be
assumed that an organization experienced follow-on activity if their
domain is decoded from any DNS logs. Specifically, it’s only an
indicator that the backdoor code was present and capable of being activated.

Public Contributions

We have seen substantial community contributions to our public
SUNBURST GitHub repository

We would like to publicly thank all contributors to this repository.
Specifically, all FNV hashes embedded within SUNBURST have been
brute-forced. This is a huge amount of compute power that members of
the community provided free-of-charge to help others. We want to thank
everyone who contributed hashes and specifically callout the Hashcat
community, which organized to systematically break each hash. This was
essential for breaking the final few hashes whose preimage were of
considerable length.


Matthew Williams, Michael Sikorski, Alex Berry and Robert Wallace.

For additional information on UNC2452, register for our webinar, UNC2452:
What We Know So Far
, on Tuesday, Jan. 12, at 8 a.m. PT/11 a.m. ET.

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