In this work, we abandon this methodology and ask whether Fiat-Shamir truly requires a cryptographic hash function. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that in two of its most common applications — building signature schemes as well as (general-purpose) non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments — there are sound Fiat-Shamir instantiations using extremely simple and non-cryptographic hash functions such as sum-mod-p or bit decomposition. In some cases, we make idealized assumptions about the interactive protocol (i.e., we invoke the generic group model), while in others, we argue soundness in the plain model. At a high level, the security of each resulting non-interactive protocol derives from hard problems already implicit in the original interactive protocol.
On the other hand, we also identify important cases in which a cryptographic hash function is provably necessary to instantiate Fiat-Shamir. We hope that this work leads to an improved understanding of the precise role of the hash function in the Fiat-Shamir transformation.