Industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) manage critical infrastructures by
controlling the processes based on the “physics” data gathered by edge sensor
networks. Recent innovations in ubiquitous computing and communication
technologies have prompted the rapid integration of highly interconnected
systems to ICPSs. Hence, the “security by obscurity” principle provided by
air-gapping is no longer followed. As the interconnectivity in ICPSs increases,
so does the attack surface. Industrial vulnerability assessment reports have
shown that a variety of new vulnerabilities have occurred due to this
transition while the most common ones are related to weak boundary protection.
Although there are existing surveys in this context, very little is mentioned
regarding these reports. This paper bridges this gap by defining and reviewing
ICPSs from a cybersecurity perspective. In particular, multi-dimensional
adaptive attack taxonomy is presented and utilized for evaluating real-life
ICPS cyber incidents. We also identify the general shortcomings and highlight
the points that cause a gap in existing literature while defining future
research directions.

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